A Tricky Enterococcus

Enterococci are commensal bacteria inhabiting GI tract of animals and humans. It typically emerges in debilitated patients exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics and as part of polymicrobial infections (especially, GI and/or urogenital). Enterococci are usually part of mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora, and antimicrobial regimens with minimal in vitro anti-enterococcal activity are often effective in treating mixed infections; therefore, the pathogenicity of enterococci in this setting is questionable. These and other factors limit the ability of investigators to determine the independent contribution of enterococcal infections to mortality and morbidity.

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Approach to Hyperkalemia: Diagnosis and Treatment

This blog post commences a series of articles on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to potassium and sodium derangements. This is meant to be a quick reference/guideline for emergency veterinarians, students and technicians. All readers are welcome to leave feedback and comments below.

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Wide complex tachycardia – More complex than first thought?

A 7 year-old male neutered domestic shorthaired 5 kg cat is currently hospitalized for management of an aortic thromboembolism. The cat was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left sided congestive heart failure and aortic thromboembolism causing complete lack of motor function in the pelvic limbs. It is being managed with oxygen therapy provided by commercial oxygen kennel, 2 μg/kg/hr fentanyl infusion, furosemide 2 mg/kg q12 hours and 18.75 mg clopidogrel. The cat is being monitored with regular respiratory rate checks and continuous electrocardiogram (ECG). The cat began to show some improvement in pelvic limb motor function. However, 48 hours post initiation of therapy there was a dramatic change in the ECG (Figure 1).

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Dysnatremias: The role of urine sodium and osmolality

All living organisms originated in the sea. A constant salt concentration was important to maintain their vital functions. To overcome their dependency on the sea environment, a sophisticated renal system has developed in modern mammals that allows them to maintain a steady concentration of various electrolytes and water balance.

Understanding sodium and water balance is important for clinicians who treat animals with renal disorders, sodium derangements and other critical conditions. Not surprisingly, this topic may appear complex and daunting to the majority of veterinary practitioners.

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