A Tricky Enterococcus

Enterococci are commensal bacteria inhabiting GI tract of animals and humans. It typically emerges in debilitated patients exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics and as part of polymicrobial infections (especially, GI and/or urogenital). Enterococci are usually part of mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora, and antimicrobial regimens with minimal in vitro anti-enterococcal activity are often effective in treating mixed infections; therefore, the pathogenicity of enterococci in this setting is questionable. These and other factors limit the ability of investigators to determine the independent contribution of enterococcal infections to mortality and morbidity.

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Approach to Hyperkalemia: Diagnosis and Treatment

This blog post commences a series of articles on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to potassium and sodium derangements. This is meant to be a quick reference/guideline for emergency veterinarians, students and technicians. All readers are welcome to leave feedback and comments below.

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Dysnatremias: The role of urine sodium and osmolality

All living organisms originated in the sea. A constant salt concentration was important to maintain their vital functions. To overcome their dependency on the sea environment, a sophisticated renal system has developed in modern mammals that allows them to maintain a steady concentration of various electrolytes and water balance.

Understanding sodium and water balance is important for clinicians who treat animals with renal disorders, sodium derangements and other critical conditions. Not surprisingly, this topic may appear complex and daunting to the majority of veterinary practitioners.

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Why I don’t use artificial colloids…

Currently, veterinary emergency and critical care practitioners (diplomates, residents and emergency veterinarians) are divided into two camps: those that don’t use artificial colloids and those that do. Each camp has its own arguments in favor or against the use of synthetic colloids (hydroxyethyl starches, specifically). The objective of this blog post is NOT to convince the other party that he or she is wrong and I am right, but an attempt to find out what is true and what to do about it. The reader should understand that there will be a lot of personal opinions in this post, and, as always, I recommend to exercise your critical thinking before taking these statements for granted. Ray Dalio, one of the most successful investors of all times, called this process “thoughtful disagreement”, which is “the process of having a quality back-and-forth in an open minded and assertive way so as to see things through each other’s eyes. This is powerful because it helps both parties see things they’ve been blind to. It also helps to remind people that those who change their minds are the biggest winners because they learned something, whereas those who stubbornly refuse to see the truth are losers. With practice, training, and constant reinforcement, anyone can get good at this”.

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