Fetal Heart Rate in M-mode

In this video, I will teach you how to obtain an accurate fetal heart rate by using the M-mode (point-of-care ultrasound).

NOTE*** This was a GE Logiq e machine that I used to record this video. If you are using a different ultrasound machine, your abdominal preset may be set up differently or you may not have an HR (Heart rate) option. In this case, just measure duration of one cardiac cycle (from mid-systole to mid-systole or mid-diastole to mid-diastole) and divide 60 by the duration of the cycle and you will get the heart rate. The majority of ultrasound machines will use miliseconds (ms) to measure the duration of the cycle in the M mode. You will need to convert ms to seconds to calculate the heart rate. To do that, divide ms by 1000 = sec. 

For example, in the video below the duration of the cardiac cycle in the first example was 214 ms = 0.214 sec. If you divide 60 by 0.214, the HR will be equal to 280 beats per minute, which is exactly the same HR as the calculated HR by the machine. 

PH-Induced Coagulopathy?

A 12-year-old female spayed Chihuahua was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of respiratory distress that had started acutely several hours prior to presentation. The dog began coughing at 10 am the morning of presentation, and was unobserved during the day while the owner was at work. At 6 pm the cough was worse, and the dog became dyspneic. The patient has had a chronic cough for a couple years but typically only has one coughing episode per day. The cough was a hacking cough that lasted about 10-15 seconds, and the dog has never been dyspneic before.

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Understanding Stats When Reading a Scientific Paper

In this post, I want to underscore the importance of understanding a statistical analysis section when reading any scientific paper, especially in veterinary medicine where the peer-review process of statistical analysis is not always as strict as in human medicine.

Obviously, it is impossible to cover the entire statistical analysis course in this post, and I am by no means a statistician. However, I will give you an example of choosing a wrong statistical test leading to a completely wrong interpretation of the results of a clinical study. My goal is to ignite your interest and curiosity with respect to statistical analysis, and I plan to continue posting similar articles in the future.

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Approach to Hyponatremia in Dogs and Cats

This post presents diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to canine and feline patients with hyponatremia. As we all remember, the plasma sodium concentration represents a ratio of plasma sodium content to the water content. As a result, the plasma sodium concentration depends heavily on water balance. Therefore, hyponatremia may develop secondary to either excess of free water in the body or lack of sodium ions relatively to the free water. Also, it is helpful to remember that plasma sodium concentration is the key determinant of plasma osmolality, and the majority of hyponatremic patients will have low plasma osmolality. However, this is not always the case. For example, patients with hyperglycemia or those who received mannitol may develop hyponatremia in conjunction with high plasma osmolality caused by excessive glucose concentration or the presence of other osmotically active substances (e.g. mannitol). Hyponatremic patients with normal plasma osmolality typically have spurious hyponatremia (aka pseudohyponatremia).

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